A novel hypotheses for understanding coronavirus infection
Antioxidant Enzyme Deficiency
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very crucial and ubiquitous molecule in biological systems. H2O2 acts as necessary-evil or double-edged sword due to its dual role in the body. While excessive H2O2 accumulation can be cytotoxic that causes DNA damages, aging, and age-related diseases; at a balanced concentration it has vital roles as a signaling molecule in the regulation of a wide variety of biological processes. As we age, production of the antioxidant catalase enzyme, which catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen, tails off; as a result, H2O2 starts to accumulate in body.
Synergic SARS-CoV-2 Virus and Streptococcus Pneumoniae Co-Infection
Lethal synergic viral and bacterial cooperation at mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract following influenza virus infection caused unprecedented mortality during pandemics. Recent studies have revealed that secondary bacterial pneumonia, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), was the predominant cause of death in pandemic influenzas including 1918 Spanish flu, 1958 Asian flu, and 2009 swine flu outbreaks. Early investigations have also revealed that the prevalence of pneumonia in mild and severe COVID-19 patients is very dominant, and relatively high death rates likely resulted from bacterial co-infections.
Catalase Enzyme Deficiency and Synergic Viral-Bacterial Co-Infection are the Most Likely Cause of COVID-19 Mortalities
Elevated H2O2 level has detrimental causal effects on biological processes and pathways, and also has severe damages on epithelial and endothelial cells in respiratory tract. Age-, gender-, diet-, and/or present comorbidity-associated antioxidant enzyme (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and/or peroxiredoxins) deficiency causes the accumulation of endogenous H2O2 in body. Further substantial secretion of H2O2 by S. pneumoniae bacterium brings the overall H2O2 concentration above the detrimental level, which in turn may cause severe lung damage and suppress innate immune system.
We produce state-of-the-art sterilizers through scientific innovations
trio (/ˈtriːəʊ/): a group of three chemical agents used to destroy microorganisms and viruses.
Silver-Hydrogen Peroxide (Ag-H2O2) sterilant for maximum sterilization efficiency.
Hydrogen Peroxide Collector
Nanostructured surfaces combined with active carbon fiber filter for collection of hydrogen peroxide residues.